Researchers in the International Centre for Allied Health Evidence (iCAHE) have explored adolescent spinal and musculoskeletal health over the last 15 years in Adelaide, and in the last decade, they have worked with researchers at Stellenbosch University in Cape Town, South Africa, on laboratory-based research into the same topic. A number of useful resources has resulted, which can be used by teachers, parents and students, policy makers and the broader community. This section reports on a list of resources and publications produced from this research.





A timeline of the work done to date on adolescent spinal health at iCAHE:

Spinal Health Timeline


Overview of iCAHE adolescent spinal health research

Manual underpinning the 1999-2003 longitudinal study (see timeline)

Spinal Health Curriculum Resources for Year 8 Students

Teachers Resource Manual


van Niekerk S-M, Louw QA, Grimmer-Somers K, Hendry K, Harvey J (2013): The anthropometric match between high school learners of the Cape Metropole area, Western Cape, South Africa and their computer workstation at school. Applied Ergonomics 44 (2013) 366-371.  Abstract

Milanese S (2011): Risk Factors for Adolescent Low Back Pain: A longitudinal study of a cohort of secondary school students. Contemporary Ergonomics and Human Factors 2011 Peer reviewed proceedings of the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors Annual Conference. CRC Press Taylor and Francis: London, ISBN:978-0-415-67573-4, 91-97.

Milanese S (2011): Risk Factors for Adolescent Low Back Pain: A literature review. Contemporary Ergonomics and Human Factors 2011 Peer reviewed proceedings of the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors Annual Conference. CRC Press Taylor and Francis: London, ISBN:978-0-415-67573-4315-321.

Milanese, S, Grimmer K (2010): Chapter 3: Backpacks and posture, In: Hong Y (ed), Load Carriage in School Children: Epidemiology and Exercise Science, Nova Science Publishers Inc, ISBN:978-1-61668-622-2.  

Milanese S, Grimmer-Somers K (2010): What is Adolescent Low Back Pain? – A review of current definitions used to define the adolescent with low back pain. Journal of Pain Research.Vol.3:57-66. Abstract

Milanese S, Grimmer-Somers K (2010): Editorial Comment: Effect of Backpack weight on postural angles in preadolescent children (Ramprasad M, Alias J & Raghuveer AK). Indian Paediatrics 47: 571-572. Abstract 

Brink (Prins) Y, Crous L, Louw Q, Grimmer-Somers K, Schreve C (2009): The association between postural alignment and psychosocial factors to upper quadrant pain in high school students: A prospective study.  Manual Therapy 14(6): 647-653. Abstract

Louw QA, van Niekerk S-M, Vaughan C, Grimmer-Somers K, Schreve K (2008): Photographic measurement of sitting posture of high school students: A reliability and validity study BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 9:113.  Abstract

Grimmer-Somers K, Milanese S, Louw Q (2008): Measurement of cervical posture in the sagittal plane Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 31:509-517. Abstract

Smith L, Louw Q, Grimmer-Somers K (2008): Prevalence of Neck Pain and Headaches: Impact Of Computer Use And Other Associative Factors.  Cephalalgia  29:250–257. Abstract 

Jeffries L, Milanese S, Grimmer-Somers K (2007): Epidemiology of adolescent spinal pain: a systematic overview of the research literature.  Spine 32(23): 2630-2637. Abstract 

Louw QA, Morris LD, Grimmer-Somers KA (2007): Prevalence of low back pain in Africa: A systematic review.  BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 8:105. Abstract

Grimmer K, Nyland L, Milanese S (2006): Repeated measures of recent headache, neck and upper back pain in Australian adolescents.  Cephalalgia 26: 853-851. Abstract 

Grimmer K, Nyland L, Milanese S (2006): Longitudinal investigation of low back pain in Australian adolescents: a five year study.  Physiotherapy Research International   11 (3): 161 – 172. Abstract 

Bialocerkowski A, Grimmer K, Nyland L (2005): The prevalence and risk factors associated with neck problems in under graduate physiotherapy students.   Physiotherapy Canada 57: 293-304. Abstract 

McEvoy M, Grimmer K (2005): Reliability of upright posture measurements in primary school children.   BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 6:35 6:35. Abstract

Grimmer K, Milanese S, Kay D (2005): Adolescent spinal health in the school setting: whose responsibility? ACHPER Journal  52(2): 7-13. Abstract 

Milanese S (2005): Adolescent Ergonomics. Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society Annual Conference, Hereforeshire, UK.

Milanese S, Grimmer K (2004): School furniture and the user population, an anthropometric perspective.  Ergonomics 47(4): 416-426. Abstract 

Steele E, Bialocerkowski A, Grimmer K (2003). The postural effects of load carriage on young people; a systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 4:12 (17 June 2003). Abstract 

Nyland L, Grimmer K (2003): Back pain in physiotherapy students.  BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 4:22 (10 Oct 2003).  Abstract

Grimmer K, Dansie B, Milanese S, Pirunsan U, Trott P (2002): Adolescent postural response to experimental backpack loads. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 3:10. Abstract   Protocol

Chansirinukor W, Wilson D, Grimmer K, Dansie B (2001).  The Effects of Backpacks on Students: Measurement of cervical and shoulder posture Australian Journal of Physiotherapy.47: 110-116. Abstract  

Steele S, Grimmer K, Williams M, Gill T (2001): Vertical anthropometric measures and low back pain in high school aged children. Physiotherapy Research International 6: 94-105. Abstract

Grimmer K, Williams M. (2000):  Gender-age environmental contributions to adolescent low back pain.  Applied Ergonomics 31: 343-360. Abstract  

Blizzard L, Grimmer K, Dwyer T (2000). The reproducibility of measurements associated assessment of retrospective recall of headaches of associated anthropometric and muscle functioning factors Archives of Physical Rehabilitation and Medicine 81:1204-10.  Abstract  

Grimmer K, Williams M, Gill T (1999): The associations between adolescent head-on-neck posture, backpack weight and anthropometric features.  Spine 24(21): 2262-2267.  Abstract

Gill T, Grimmer K, Williams M (1999):  High School Students and Lockers.  Australian Council of Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) Journal.  46 (2-3): 5-9. Abstract 

Milanese S. (1999): The biomechanical effect of posterior load carrying systems. ‘Moving in on Occupational Injury.  Peer Reviewed Full Paper Conference proceedings. Conference proceedings. Butterworth Heineman.